Exam 1

1) Why study Information systems?
*The reason we study information systems is to gain more knowledge on how to help our companies be more successful in achieving company goals and because information systems are used in almost every career area. Knowing information systems will make you more of an asset for a company.

2) Porter's general strategies for competitive advantage.
*alter the industry structure, create new products and services, improve existing product lines and services, use information systems for strategic purposes.**

3) RISC vs. CISC microprocessors
*RISC chips are faster than CISC chips, and are less expensive.

4) RAM types
* EDO-extended data output, DRAM-dynamic RAM, SDRAM-Synchronous DRAM**

5) Software vs. hardware
*Hardware-any devices that assist with the input, processing, storage and output activities of an information system.
*Software-the computer programs that govern the operation of the computer.

6) Information systems
*Sets of inter-related components that collect, manipulate, and disseminate data and information and provide feedback to meet an objective.

7) Elements of a computer-based information system
*CBIS: a single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information. For example: a company’s payroll systems, inventory systems

8) Business processes
*Includes all activities both internal(such as thinking) and external(such as taking action), that are performed to transform inputs into outputs. It defines the way work gets done.

9) Organizations
*Formal collection of people and other resources established to accomplish a set of goals.

10) Reengineering
Radical Redesign of business processes.**

11) Distributed processing vs. timingsharing vs. parallel processing
*Distributed Processing-processing alternative in which computers are placed at remote locations but connected to each other via a network
*Timesharing-capability that allows more than one person to use a computer system at the same time
*Parallel Processing-speeds processing by linking many processors to operate at the same time *or in parallel

12) LCD display types
*Passive-matrix display-the CPU sends its signals to transistors around the borders of the screen
*Active-matrix display-each pixel is controlled by its own transistor attached on a thin film to the glass behind the pixel

13) CPU characteristics
*This part of the computer contains 3 elements(arithmetic logic, the control unit, and the register areas)**

14) Memory types in computers
*RAM: temporary and volatile
*ROM: non volatile
*Cache memory: high speed memory that a processor can access more rapidly than main memory

15) LAN vs. WAN
*LAN-Local Area Network
*WAN-Wireless Area Network

16) System software vs. application software
*System software - the set of programs designed to coordinate the activities and funtions of the hardware and various programs throughout the computer system.
*Application software - programs that help users solve particular computing problems.**

17) Newsgroups
*Online disscussion groups

18) VOIP
*This is Voice over IP. It means that voice communication is digitized and transmitted over the same networks that are used for the Internet.

19) FTP
*File transfer process between a host and remote computer

20) Encryption
*Conversion of a message into a secret code

21) Telnet
*Terminal emulation protocol that enables users to log onto other computers on the internet to gain access to public files.

22) URL
*A URL (Uniform Resource Locator, previously Universal Resource Locator) is the unique address for a file that is accessible on the Internet.

23) Tunnels or tunnelling
*Process by which UPN transfers info by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the internet.

24) Gateways
*Network points that acts as an entrance to another network.

25) Report types (demand, exception, scheduled, et cetera)
*Demand: pulled up when needed (e.g. accounts receivable aging report).
*Exception: generated automatically when a certain condition occurs (e.g. out of supplies).
*Scheduled: generated at regular, pre-determined times.

26) mainframe
*large powerful computer oftem shared by hundreds of concurrent users connected to the machine via terminals

27) minicomputer
*A class of multi-user computers that lies in the middle range of the computing specrum, in between the largest multi-user systems (mainframe computers) and the smallest single-user systems (microcomputers or personal computers). (Source: Wikipedia)

28) MIS vs. DSS

  • MIS- (Management Information System) An organized collection of people, procedures, and software, databases, and devices used to provide routine information to managers and decision makers.
  • DSS- (Decision Support System) An organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to support problem-specific decision making.

29) Data vs. Information
**data is the raw facts and information is a collection of these facts organized in a way that they have additional value beyond the fact itself.
A) Characteristics of Valuable Data
- Accurate, Complete, Economical, Flexible, Reliable, Relevant, Simple, Timely, Verifiable, Accessible, Secure

30) Computer Programs: sequences of instructions for the computer

31) System software: set of programs that coordinates the activities of hardware and programs

32) Application software: programs that help users solve particular problems

33) Kernal: controls the operating system

34) Graphical user interface: desktop, icons and menus

35) Processing tasks
Multitasking: allows 1 program at a time
Time-Sharing: more than 1 person at a time or programs
Scalability: ability of the computer handle an increasing number of concurrent users smoothly

36) Utility programs: "System tools" Compress data, virus-detection, encryption, indexing secondary storage

37) Proprietary software: one of a kind program for a specific application, usually developed and owned by a single company
Advantage: Get what you want
Disadvantage: Costs more resources (time and money)

38) Off the shelf software: existing software programs that are purchased
Advantage: Low cost
Disadvantage: don't get the customization

39) Enterprise software: software that benefits an entire organization. A set of integrated programs that manage a company's vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization

40) Programming Languages: communicate instructions to be executed by a computer

41) First: Machine language. Required use of binary symbols (0s and 1s)

42) Second: assembly language. Symbols rather than binary digits. Assmblers: programs that translate assembly languages into machine code

43) Third: high-level language. Greater us of symbolic code.

44) Fourth: Query and database languages. Easier to use, more English like. Tell the CPU the desired results, not how to get them

45) Beyond Fourth: Natural and intelligent languages. Artificial Intelligence

46) Internet: a collection of interconnected networks, all freely exchanging information

56) Compiler: a software program that converts the programmer's source code into the machine-language instructions consisting of binary digits