Exam 3

Exam 3 is not a comprehensive final but does cover: Chapters: 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 from the Stair book and related lectures.

1) DSS Feedback: ??? Monitoring a solution to see if it worked out as planned and then adjusting the solution as necessary ??? [chap 10, pg 456]

2) Five steps in Problem Solving: Intelligence (potential problems identified); Design (solutions to problems developed); Choice (choose a solution); Implementation (implement solution); Monitor (evaluate the implementation) [chap 10] {dicim}

3) Stages of the Problem Solving Process: Problem Solving includes five stages. Decision Making covers the first three [chap 10]

4) Decision Making: First part of Problem Solving Process, covering first three stages: Intelligence, Design, and Choice [chap 10]

5) Programmed decision: Decision made using a rule, procedure, or quantitative method [chap 10]

6) Ad hoc decisions: Decisions the come up only a few times during the life of the organization [chap 10]

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

7) Expert systems: Hardware and software that stores knowledge and makes inferences, similar to a human expert [chap 11]

8) Role of human experts in expert systems: Knowledge of individuals w/similar expertise is gathered to build an "expert knowledge base." If human experts disagree, can be difficult to determine which rules and relationships to place in knowledge base. Expert system developed from this base.

9) Expert system development process: Determine requirements (system objectives/potential use); Identify experts (current employees? people outside of organization?); Construct components; Implement results (make system operational); Maintain & Review (evaluate the system) [chap 11]

10) Fuzzy logic: Special research area of computer science. Allows shades of gray; does not require everything to be simply yes/no, true/false, black/white [chap 11]

11) Neural networks: Computer system that can simulate the functioning of a human brain [chap 11]

12) Robotics: Devices that perform tasks requiring great precision or tedious/hazardous to humans [chap 11]

13) Vision systems: Hardware and software that permit computers to capture, store, and manipulate visual images and pictures [chap 11]

14) Natural language processing: Processing that allows a computer to understand and react to statements and commands made in a "natural" language, such as English [chap 11]

15) Visual programming languages: ?????

16) Expert system shells: Collection of software packages and tools used to develop expert systems [chap 11]

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

17) Members of a programming team: ?????

18) Flow charts: ?????

19) Data models: Diagram of data entities and their relationships [chap 12]

20) Process models: ?????

21) SDLC (Systems Development Life Cycle): Investigation (understand problem); Analysis (understand solution); Design (select and plan best solution); Implementation (implement solution); Maintenance & Review (evaluate solution) [chap 12] {raidi}

22) Systems investigation (define): Systems development phase during which problems and opportunities are identified and cosidered in light of the goals of the organization [chap 12]

23) Systems analysis: Systems development phase involving the study of existing systems and work processes to identify strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities for improvement [chap 12]

24) Systems design: Systems development phase that defines how the IS will do what it must do to obtain the problem solution [chap 12]

25) Systems implementation: Systems development phase involving the creation or acquiring of various system components detailed in the systems design, and then assembling them and placing the new or modified system into operation [chap 12]

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

26) Cross-platform development: Development technique that allows programmers to develop programs that can run on computer systems having different hardware and operating systems, or platforms [chap 13]

27) Five tests used in software development: Unit (test individual programs); System (test entire system of programs); Volume (test w/large amounts of data); Integration (test all related systems together); Acceptance (conduct all tests required by user) [chap 13] {usvia}

28): Phase-in approach: Slowly replacing components of the old system with those of the new. This process is repeated for each application until the new system is running every application [chap 13]

29) Pilot start-up: Running the new system for one group of users rather than ALL users [chap 13]

30) Parallel start-up: Running both the old and new sytems for a period of time and comparing the outputs of both systems [chap 13]

31) Direct conversion (also called Plunge): Stopping the old system and starting the new on a given date [chap 13]

32) ROI: Return on Investment. Used to evaluate proposed systems [chap 13]

33) Cost/Benefit Analysis: Lists the costs/benefits of proposed systems. Used to evaluate proposed systems [chap 13]

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

34) Software fraud prevention:
35) Software piracy: The act of illegally duplicating software
36) Viruses: A computer program file capable of attaching to disks or other files and replicating itself repeatedly, typically without the user's knowledge or permission. Computer viruses are written for several operating systems, including Windows, Macintosh, UNIX, and others. [chap 14]
37) Scams on the computer:
38) Fair use of information:
39) Software privacy issues:
40) What is biometrics and how does it impact data security?: Biometrics is the measurement of one person's traits, whether phyical or behavioral. Ex. fingerprint scanner for security. Biometrics can benefit data security dramatically by allowing only specific people to access it.

Do any other students think that the following could be possible "essay" questions?
Decision Making [chap 10]
Stages of the problem solving process [chap 10]
Role of human experts in expert systems [chap 11]
Define systems investigation [chap 12]
What is cross-platform development [chap 13]
What is biometrics and how does it impact data security? [chap 14]

Steps of systems implementation: hardware acquisition, software acquisition, user preparation, personnel: hiring and training, site preparation, data preparation, installation, testing, start-up, and user acceptance
Systems operation is the use of a new or modified system
Systems maintenance involves checking, changing, and enhancing the system to make it more useful in achieving user and organizational goals
Social contract of business: businesses are responsible to society
*Ergonomics: the study of designing and positioning computer equipment for employee health and
Intrusion detection system (IDS): software that monitors system and network resources and notifies network security personnel when it senses a possible intrusion
Decision-making phase: first part of problem-solving process
Intelligence stage: potential problems or opportunities are identified and defined
§ *Design stage: alternative solutions to the problem are developed
§ *Choice stage: requires selecting a course of action
§ *Problem solving: a process that goes beyond decision making to include the implementation stage
§ *Implementation stage: a solution is put into effect
§ *Monitoring stage: decision makers evaluate the implementation